Code No. : 93
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UGC NET November Tourism Administration and Management Syllabus 2017
UGC NET Tourism Paper II and III ( Part – A & B ) :
Unit – I :
- Tourist / Visitor / Traveller / Excursionist – definition and differentiation. Tourism recreation and leisure inter-relationship ( s ). Tourism components, Elements and infrastructure. Types and typologies of Tourism.
- Emerging concepts : Eco / rural / agri. / farai / green / wilderness / country side / special interest tourism.
- Tourism Trends : Growth and development over the years and factors responsible therein. Changing market-destination patterns, Traffic flows / receipt trends. Travel motivator and deterrents. Pull and Push forces in tourism.
Linkages and channels of distribution in Tourism :
Tourism Organisation / Institutions : Origin, Organisation and functions of WTO, PATA, IATA, ICAO, FHRAI, TAAI, IATO and UFTAA.
Unit – II :
- Concept of resource, Attraction and product in tourism. Tourism products : typology and unique features.
- Natural Tourism Resources in India : Existing use patterns vis – a – vis potential with relation to varied landforms ( mountains, deserts, beaches, coastal areas and Islands ), Water bodies and biotic wealth ( flora – fauna ).
- Popular tourist destination for land based ( soft / hard trekking, ice skiing, mountaineering, desert safaris, car rallies, etc. ), water based ( rafting, kayaking, canoeing, surfing, water skiing, scuba / snuba diving ) and air based ( para – sailing, para – gliding, ballooning, hand – gliding and microlighting, etc ) tourist activities. Wildlife – Tourism and conservation related issues – Occurrence and distribution of popular wildlife species in India. Tourism in National parks, Wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves ( case of Dachigham Corbett / Dudhwa / Kaziranga / Kanha / Gir / Ranthambor / Mudumalai / Sunderbans / Shivpuri / Manas / Nanda Devi / Valley of flowers reserves ). Tourism and nature conservation-Conflicts, Symbiosis and Synergy.
- Cultural Tourism Resources in India : Indian Culture and society. Indian History – Ancient, Medieval and Modern.
- Traditions, Customs and costumes : Life style and settlement patterns. Food habits and cuisine. Music, Musical instruments and Dance forms; Drawing and painting; Craftsmanship.
- Religion / religious observances and important pilgrim destinations.
- Architectural Heritage-Forts / palaces / other architectural marvels – Location and unique features.
Unit – III :
- Accommodation : Concept, Types and Typologies, Linkages and Significance with relation to tourism.
- Emerging dimensions of accommodation industry – Heritage hotels, Motels and resort properties. Time share establishments.
- Hotel and Hoteliering : Origin, Growth and diversification. Classification, registration and gradation of hotels. Organisational structure, Functions and responsibilities of the various departments of a standard hotel / other catering outlets, viz., bars, restaurants, fast food centres. In flight catering.
- Leading multinational hotel chains operating in India. Public sector in hoteliering business – Role, Contribution and Performance.
- HRD perspective with special reference to India-Requirements, Training facilities, Constraints and Scope.
- Fiscal and non-fiscal incentive available to hotel industry in India. Ethical, Legal and regulatory aspects.
Unit – IV :
- Transportation : Dynamically Changing needs and means.
- Landmarks in the development of transport sector and the consequent socio – economic, Cultural and environmental implications. Tourism transport system.
- Airlines Transportation : The Airlines Industry-Origin and Growth. Organisation of Air Transport Industry in International context. Scheduled and non – scheduled Airlines services; Air taxis. Multinational Air Transport Regulations-Nature, Significance and Limitations. Role of LATA, ICAO and other agencies. Bermuda Convention.
- Air Transport Industry in India – DGCA and other key players; Regulatory Framework; Air Corporation Act, Indian carriers-Operations, management and performance. Marketing strategies of Air India.
- Significance of Road Transport in Tourism : Growth and Development of road transport system in India; State of existing infrastructure; Public and Private Sector involvement; Role of Regional Transport Authority. Approved Travel Agencies, Tour / Transport Operators, Car hire / Rental companies.
- State and inter – state bus and coach network, Insurance provision road taxes and fitness certificate.
- Rail Transport Network – Major Railway Systems of World – British Rail, Euro Rail and Amtrak.
- Types of special package offered by Indian Railways to tourists – Indrail pass, Palace on Wheels and Royal Orient.
- Reservation procedures. GSAs abroad.
- Water Transport System in India – Historical past, Cruise ships, Ferries, Hovercraft, River and canal boats, Fly cruise. Future prospects.
Unit – V :
- Travel Agency and Tour Operations Business : Origin, Growth and development; Definition, Differentiation and linkages; Organisation and functions-Travel information counselling, Itinerary preparation, Reservation, Tour costing / pricing. Marketing of tour packages. Income sources.
- Airlines Ticketing : Operational perspectives of ticketing – ABC codes, Flight schedules, Flying time and MPM / TPM calculation, TIM ( Travel Information Mannual ) consultation. Routine and itinerary preparation, Types of fare, Fare calculation and rounding – up. Currency conversion and payment modes, Issuance of ticket.
- Cargo Handling : Baggage allowance, Free access baggage. Weight and piece concept. Accountability of lost baggage, Dangerous goods; Cargo rates and valuation charges, Automation and airport procedures.
- Requirements for setting – up travel agency and tour operations business, Approval from organisation and institutions concerned. Incentives available in Indian context. Constraints and limitations.
Unit – VI :
- Marketing : Core concepts in marketing; Needs, Wants, Demands, Products, markets. Marketing management philosophies-Production, Product, Selling, Marketing and societal perspectives. Economic importance of marketing.
- Tourism marketing : Service characteristics of tourism. Unique features of tourist demand and tourism product / Tourism marketing mix.
- Analysis and selection of market : Measuring and forecasting tourism demand; Forecasting methods, Managing capacity and demand. Market segmentation and positioning.
- Developing marketing environment, Consumer buying behaviour. Competitive differentiation and competitive marketing strategies, New product development, product life cycle, Customer satisfaction and related strategies in internal and external marketing; Interactive and relationship marketing.
- Planning Marketing Programs : Product and product strategies; Product line, Product mix, Branding and packaging. Pricing; considerations, Approaches and strategies. Distribution channels and strategies.
- Marketing of Tourism Services : Marketing of Airlines, Hotel, Resort, Travel Agencies and other tourism related services – Challenges and strategies.
- Marketing Skills for Tourism : Creativity – Communication – Self – motivation – Team Building – Personality Development.
Unit – VII :
- Tourism Planning : Origin, Concept and approaches. Levels and types of tourism planning-Sectoral, Spatial, Integrated, Complex, Centralized and Decentralized. Product life cycle theories and their applicability in tourism planning, Urban and rural tourism planning.
- Tourism planning and policy perspectives; planning at national, state and regional levels. India’s tourism policies.
- Tourism Planning Process : Objective setting, Background analysis, Detailed research and analysis, Synthesis, Goal setting and Plan formulation, Evaluation of tourism project-Project feasibility study; Plan implementation, Development and monitoring. Tourism master plan.
- Tourism impacts and need for sustainable tourism planning : Socio – cultural, Economic and physical, Tourism carrying capacity and environmental impact analysis ( EIA ).
- Business ethics and laws – their relevance and applicability in Travel and Tourism industry.
- Law and legislation relating to tourist entry, Stay, Departure, Passport, Visa and Health.
- Tourist safety and security, Preservation and conservation of heritage environment, Archaeological sites and wildlife.
Unit – VIII :
- The nature of field techniques; Field techniques and tourism and hotel business; Importance; and Limitations.
- Research : Meaning; Types; Trends; and challenges with special reference to tourism and hotel business. Guiding principles in selection of research problem.
- Research Methodology : Meaning; Procedural Guidelines; and Research design.
- Field Procedure for Data Collection and Analysis Techniques : Nature, sources of data, Techniques of data collection.
- Frequency Distribution : Meanings; Problems and considerations in construction numerical frequency distributions.
- Measures of Central tendency and variation.
- Correlation and regressions analysis.
- Probability and Probability Distributions :
- Probability : Meaning; Definition; and sample points and sample space, Events; Conditional probability; Bayes theorem and probability on large sample space.
- Probability Distributions : The binomial model; The poisson model; and Normal distribution.
- Sampling and Statistical Testing :
- Sampling and Sample Designs : Sampling and reasons for sampling; Theoretical basis of sampling; Basic concepts of sampling and types of sampling ( Random and Non-random sampling ). Central Limit theorem.
- Statistical Testing : Formulation and general procedure of testing of hypothesis, One – tail test and Two – tail test.
- Parametric and Non-Parametric Testing :
- Testing the Hypothesis : Comparison of two population means; Comparison of two population proportions; and Comparison of two population means and standard deviations.
- F – test, Student’s distribution and Chi – square test.
Unit – IX :
- Management : Concept, Nature, Process and functions. Management levels, Managerial skills and roles. The external environment, Social responsibilities and ethics.
- Planning : Nature, Purpose, Types ‘and process. Management by objectives strategies and policies. Decision – making, Process, Tools and techniques. Decision – making models.
- Organising : Concept of organising and organisation. Line and staff, Authority and responsibility, Span of control, Delegation, Decentralization, Conflict and coordination, Organisational structure and design, Management of change. Innovation and organisation development.
- Directing : Communication-Process, Types, Barriers and principles of effective communication. Motivation – Theories and practices, Leadership – Concept, theories and styles.
- Controlling : Process, Methods and techniques. Managing international business.
- Information Systems : Automation of Manual System, Data Processing stages. Evolution from EDP to MIS.
- MIS : Introduction, Definition, Status, Framework of understanding and designing MIS.
- Computer Networking : Application of CRS ( Computerized Reservation Systems ) in travel trade and hospitality sector.
Unit – X :
Financial Management and Planning :
Finance : Meaning; Goals; Functions; Importance; and typologies of Finance – Role of financial management, Organisation goals; Environment; Forecasting and financial planning. Break – even analysis.
Management of Current Assets :
- Working Capital Management : Meaning and characteristics of working capital; Financing current assets. Cash management, Receivables management and inventory management.
- Management of Fixed Assets; Importance of Capital Budgeting. Analytical Techniques – Non – discounted, Discounted Techniques.
Financial Structures and Management of Earnings :
- Meaning, Difference between financial and capital structures. Determinants of Financial Structure.
- Financial leverage and effects of Financial Leverage on Net Income and Shareholders wealth. Financial leverage and financial planning. Break-even analysis for financial leverage. Dividend Policy, Significance of dividend policy and different types of dividend policies.
- TFCI : Tourism Finance Corporation of India ( TFCI ) – Aims, Objectives, Organisation and Functions.
- Accounting : Preparation of Business Income Statement, Balance Sheet, Cash flow statement and Fund flow statement. Hotel Accounting.